WERELD & DENKEN
 
 

Algemene semantiek | Hayakawa, inhoud

 English version here
S.I. Hayakawa, Language in Thought and Action, George Allen & Unwin, 2e edition (1973, Londen). Noot: in de beschikbare uittreksels zijn de Oefeningen secties weggelaten. Lees het het gedrukte exemplaar voor de volledige inhoud.


Contents

Preface

Book One | The Functions of Language

Foreword
The parable of Red-Eye and the Woman Problem: A Semantic Parable

1  Language and Survival
Introduction
What Animals Shall We Imitate?
Cooperation
The Pooling of Knowledge
The Niagara of Words
Applications

2  Symbols
The Symbolic Process
Language as Symbolism
The Pitfalls of Drama
The Word Is Not the Thing
Maps and Territories
Applications

3  Reports, Inferences. Judgments  
Verifiability
Inferences
Judgments .
Snarl-Words and Purr-Words
How judgments stop thought 
Slanting
Discovering One's Bias
Applications

4  Contexts
How Dictionaries Are Made
Verbal and Physical Contexts
Extensional and Intensional Meaning
The "One Word, One Meaning" Fallacy
Ignoring Contexts
The Interaction of Words
Applications

5  The Language of Social Cohesion
Noises as Expression
Noise for Noise's Sake
The Value of Unoriginal Remarks
Maintenance of Communication Lines
Presymbolic Language in Ritual
Advice to the Literal-Minded
Applications

6  The Double Task of Language
Connotations
Informative Connotations
Affective Connotations
A Note on Verbal Taboo
Words with Built-in Judgments
Everyday Uses of Language
Applications

7  The Language of Social Control
Making Things Happen
The Promises of Directive Language
The Foundations of Society
Directives with Collective Sanction
What Are "Rights"?
Directives and Disillusionment
Applications

8  The Language of Affective Communication
Verbal Hypnotism
More Affective Elements
Metaphor and Simile
Simile
Dead Metaphor
Allusion .
Irony, Pathos, and Humor
The Affectiveness of Facts
Levels of Writing
What Literature Is For Symbolic Experience
Science and Literature
Applications

9  Art and Tension
Bearing the Unbearable
Some "Symbolic Strategies"
"Equipment for Living"
Art as Order
Applications


Book Two | Language and Thought

Foreword
The parable of A-town and B-ville: Second Semantic Parable

10  How We Know What We Know
Bessie, the Cow
The Process of Abstracting
Why We Must Abstract
On Definitions
"Let's Define Our Terms"
Operational Definitions
Chasing Oneself in Verbal Circles
The Distrust of Abstractions
"Dead-level abstracting"
Applications

11  The Little Man Who Wasn't There
How Not To Start a Car
Confusion of Levels of Abstraction
"Jews"
John Doe, the "Criminal"
Delusional Worlds
Applications

12  Classification
Giving Things Names
The Blocked Mind
Cowl Is Not Cow2
"Truth"
Applications

13  The Two-Valued Orientation
[Introduction]
The Two-Valued Orientation in Politics
Man's Inhumanity to Man
The Marxist Two-Valued Orientation
Two-valued logic
Defeating One's Own Ends
Applications

14  The Multi-Valued Orientation
A Matter of Degree
The Pitfalls of Debate
The Open and Closed Mind
Applications

15  Poetry and Advertising
The Poet's Function
Art and Life
The Laureate's Task
The Problems of the Unsponsored Poet
The Symbols We Live By
Symbols for Our Times
Applications

16  The Dime in the Juke-Box
Intensional Orientation
Oververbalization
Advertising and Intensional Orientation
Higher Education, Learned Jargon, and Babuism
Applications

17  Rats and Men
"Insoluble" Problems
Cultural Lag
The Fear of Change
The Revision of Group Habits
The Extensional Approach
The End of the Road
The Scientific Attitude
The Left-Hand Door Again
Applications

18  Towards Order Within and Without
Rules for Extensional Orientation
Symptoms of Disorder
The Lost Children
"Know Thyself"
Reports and Judgments
Institutionalized Attitudes
Reading Towards Sanity

Postscript

Selected Bibliography
Index



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